The 21st Century is the age of science and technology. It will also be the age when humanity confronts for the first time a challenge that may overwhelm and destroy the human species itself. And the irony of it all is that human beings themselves are feverishly creating this challenge thinking that it will ultimately be for the benefit of humanity itself. One need only cite the promises of super health, super strength, super intelligence, and immortality for the humans that will be brought by AI in conjunction with other technologies. But there is a growing concern that this technological creation could lead to the extinction of the human species itself. This is the perilous challenge of artificial intelligence (AI).